星期六, 9月 08, 2007

致聯合國世界遺產委員會的信  Letter to World Heritage Centre

就澳門世界遺產現在所處的情況,護塔連線已於八月中向以下三個機構寄出速遞公函,呼籲有關單位關注澳門世遺面臨的危機:

Mr Francesco Bandarin
Director
World Heritage Centre
UNESCO
7, Place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07 SP
France
Tel.: 33 (01) 45 68 18 71Fax: 33 (01) 45 68 55 70
E-mail: info@unesco.org


Gaia Jungeblodt
Director
ICOMOS International Secretariat
49-51, rue de la fédération
75015 Paris,
France
Tel: +33 (0)1 45 67 67 70Fax: +33 (0)1 45 66 06 22
e-mail:secretariat@icomos.org


Dr DU Xiaofan
National Programme Officer
Culture Heritage Conservation
UNESCO Office Beijing
Waijiaogongyu 5-15-3
Jianguomenwai Compound
Beijing, 100600
China
Tel: +86-10-6532 5790 ext. 133Fax: +86-10-6532 4854
e-mail: xf.du@unesco.org

緊急呼籲:澳門歷史城區正在面臨世界遺產遭到破壞的危險
(由於全文包括58頁的附錄,檔案太大,現只貼出正文)

1. 前言

我們是一群生活於聯合國世界文化遺產城市(中國澳門特別行政區,下稱澳門,ref: 1110)的市民,來自各行各業,包括建築師、城市規劃師、歷史學者、文物保護者、教師、記者等,在此向聯合國教科文組織世界遺產中心作出沉重的呼喚,請你們伸出援手,關注這個位處亞洲中華人民共和國南部的細小城市---澳門的歷史城區現在面臨世界遺產遭到破壞的危險。

“澳門歷史城區”的建築群,作為中國境內現存最古老、規模最大、保存最完整、融合著中西方特色的歷史建築群,四百多年來中西文化碰撞與交融、多元文化共存的例證,符合了世界文化遺產第II、III、IV、V四項標準,在2005年經由世界遺產委員會通過一系列嚴格的審視和評核後作出決定列入了世界文化遺產名錄。(附件一:澳門歷史城區及緩衝區範圍)

2. 澳門政府違反申報世遺的承諾

在澳門世遺申報書中,澳門特區政府強調:「高樓大廈已經淹沒了具有相同歷史與建築風格的許多其他東方城市,澳門保存歷史與文化的成果就顯得難能可貴!」政府承諾「建築群方面注重周圍環境的配合,盡量保持原來的氛圍」。並提交了遺產管理計劃,聲言在歷史建築群及其緩衝區內的任何政府及私人的城市發展計劃,將依照世界文化遺產及建築指引的規條進行管理,並透過立法創造更能保護文化遺產的環境。這是澳門特區政府向聯合國機構提交的保證文件,也是向國際社會、向全人類作出的承諾!

但是,由於2002年澳門政府開放了博彩業經營權,並確立旅遊博彩業的產業龍頭地位,政府開始以經濟發展為主軸的發展政策,在缺乏整體城市規劃的指導性準則下,任由地產發展商大量開發超高層建築,甚至配合發展商的需求,在2005年取消原有對保護世遺景觀有積極正面意義的《外港新填海都市規劃章程》及《南灣海灣重整計畫之細則章程》,至使現時超高層建築遍地開花,無論在數量、位置、形式及環境等方面,已經嚴重影響世界文化遺產景觀的自身存在價值,亦違背了澳門特區政府年前的承諾。




3. 以東望洋燈塔景觀受到威脅為例

我們以其中最具爭議性的東望洋燈塔景觀為例作出說明,希望委員會能夠瞭解澳門歷史城區作為世界遺產所遇到的危機。東望洋燈塔(Guia Light house)位於東望洋山上(海拔91米),為中國海岸第一座現代燈塔,其所在地理位置之座標值亦為澳門於世界地圖上之地理座標定位,建築為一圓柱形結構,總高15 米,塔頂設置巨型射燈,啟用於1865年,至今仍在使用。

作為澳門歷史城區的主要組成部分,基於航海目的而建立的地標性建築物見證了葡萄牙人在東方這個小城的發展過程,並構成東西方文化直接交流的主要組成部份。另外,如果我們從地理環境及世界航海發展史的角度去看這個地標性建築物就會發現,東望洋燈塔位處山丘的制高點及與海洋有密不可分的關係,這種源於生活、航海及貿易等海洋文化而建立的空間體系,在經過數百年的歷史沉澱後,形成獨一無二的建築、藝術、文化及歷史價值。

如果在這個地標性建築物的南面近海處大量興建超高層建築物,切斷其與海洋的視覺景觀聯繫,就等同於失去其歷史文化的源頭,破壞其尚算完整的空間環境關係,其結果將會是東西方文化交流歷史上的一個悲劇。因此,就算未列入世遺之前,政府一直嚴格限制東望洋山附近建築物的高度。(附件二:前澳門政府原本規劃中的東望洋山附近建築物高度限制圖)

令人十分驚訝的是,澳門政府在2005年申報世界遺產所提出的檔案夾中,竟然將東望洋燈塔南面以及西南面的所有土地排除出歷史建築群及其緩衝區範圍以外,並在2006年8月突然批准發展商於東望洋燈塔南面,133至138多幅土地興建最高達135米的多座超高層大樓。(附件三:133至138地段平面位置圖及其可能遮擋的景觀範圍)(附件四:新高度與原本規劃中的建築物高度限制比較表)(附件五:依2006年8月政府公佈的建築物高度作出的效果圖)。澳門民間社會普遍發出強烈質疑,並發起各種社會行動反對政府帶頭破壞世遺景觀。(可以參見為此成立的護塔連線網站http://guialighthouse.blogspot.com/,以及附件六:部分關於民間護塔運動的新聞剪報)

經過民間不斷爭取,澳門特區政府終於在2007年7月18日公佈該地段新建建築物高度不會超過九十米,並且強調上述地段不屬於世遺保護區,亦非為緩衝區。但是,我們相信,世遺建築的價值包括其自在於環境的各種因素,是連續而成一整體,並非單一的獨立個體,而基於城市發展需要而作出的任何影響世遺景觀的改變,都必須經由一連串嚴謹而深思熟慮的科學規劃。很明顯,超高層建築的峰擁而起,必將破壞這種整體關係,也將破壞澳門世界文化遺產。城市的發展需要新的建築,但無序、欠缺城市規劃的超高層建築對生活環境的破壞在世界發展史上早已經歷了一次又一次的事實證明。但是,我們不要忘記,對於世界遺產的價值意義而言,這種破壞是一次性及摧毀性的,無法復原,得益者僅為極少數的發展商,受到傷害的卻是全體市民,甚至在人類歷史上留下不可磨滅的污點,任何負責任的政府都必須負起其歷史責任,不應草率妄為。尤有甚者,我們作為成長及生活於這個城市的居民,卻無法知悉澳門政府及發展商在有關地段的計畫詳情,整個計畫變成發展商的金錢遊戲,這是現代文明社會所無法接受的事實。

4. 懇請世遺委員會關注澳門世遺現在處於危險狀態的事實

目前,最接近燈塔的建築物已經加快施工,最終將會是一棟88米高的建築物(附件七:基地現況照片),無論在燈塔上或在山腳下,世遺的景觀視線必定受到完全阻擋。根據保護世界文化和自然遺產公約第11條第4點指出,世界遺產委員會應在必要時制訂、更新和出版一份《處於危險的世界遺產目錄》,其中所列財產均為載於《世界遺產目錄》之中、需要採取重大活動加以保護並為根據本公約要求給予援助的財產。《處於危險的世界遺產目錄》中指出的危險包括大規模公共或私人工程、城市或旅遊業迅速發展計畫造成的消失威脅;土地的使用變動或易主造成的破壞等因素。委員會在緊急需要時可隨時在《處於危險的世界遺產目錄》中增列新的條目並立即予以發表。

以德國為例,科隆大教堂和德勒斯登易北河溪谷(Dresden Elbe Valley)先後登錄於《處於危險的世界遺產目錄》,其理由是周邊的開發。科隆大教堂對岸的高層大樓建設計畫,距離遺產一公里遠,而德勒斯登在城鎮的東南方約3公里的地方計畫建設一座橋,世遺委員會便將之列入《處於危險的世界遺產目錄》中。在此,我們懇請世遺委員會注意,正在興建中最接近燈塔的建築物與東望洋燈塔的距離只有200米,而建築物的高度幾乎與東望洋山體同高。(附件八:依2007年7月政府公佈的建築物高度作出的效果圖)

5. 結語

最後,我們代表有共同信念的澳門市民向世遺委員會作出誠懇的呼籲,希望委員會能有始有終地行使其權力,認真、深入地評估澳門目前有關的情況及事實,迅速作出專業有效的判斷及行動,避免這種破壞人類文化歷史的行為出現。我們誠心希望委員會儘快關注事件,因為破壞已經正在進行,時間變得非常緊迫,而且類似的破壞正在快速擴張當中,如不加以制止,澳門歷史城區將很快毀於一旦,而屬於全人類的珍貴遺產亦將淹沒在高樓中。(附件九:其他一些計劃中將會危害世遺景觀的例子)。


Urgent appeal: The Historic Centre of Macao is under serious threat - its World Heritage could be demaged
(Since the file of 58 pages annex is too big, we can only upload the official text here.)


1. Preface

We are a group of citizens, who are living in Macao Special Administration Region, China (Macao), a city with world heritage classified by UNESCO (Inscription ref : 1110)

We are from different professional sectors of society, including architects, city planners, historians, heritage protectors, teachers as well as journalists, etc. We would like to urge the UNESCO to concern Macao, which is a small city located at the southern coast of the People's Republic of China. The Historic Centre of Macao is facing a crisis, and its world heritage sites and buildings are under threat.

“The Historic Centre of Macao” is the product of over 400 years of cultural exchange between the western world and Chinese civilization. The architectural heritage, predominantly European in nature, stands in the midst of traditional Chinese architecture in the historic settlement, providing a unique contrast. “The Historic Centre of Macao” is widely regarded as the oldest, the most complete and consolidated array of European architectural legacy standing intact on Chinese territory. “The Historic Centre of Macao” meets the standards of the World Heritage in criteria II, III, IV and V. The World Heritage Committee, after in-depth inspection and evaluation, has inscribed “The Historic Monuments of Macao” on UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005. (Annex I: “The Historic Centre of Macao” and the world heritage “buffer zone”.)

2. Macao SAR government broke its promise regarding world heritage nomination to UNESCO

In the application process (through the Central Government), Macao SAR government pointed out that there were heritage sites with similar historical and architectural significance in other oriental cities, yet many of them had already submerged among new high-rise buildings. Integrated within a historically vibrant environment, the “Historic Centre of Macao” still had a clearly identifiable character, remaining a fertile ground for cultural exchanges. East and West had met and merged for over four centuries in an atmosphere marked by respect and tolerance, facilitating unique forms of cultural assimilation, from tangible traditions such as building techniques, to intangible aspects of life such as religions and social lifestyles.”

The Macao Government pledged to “keep the original atmosphere in the Historic Centre of Macao and its surrounding environment.

The Macao government has submitted its management plan for the world heritage to the UNESCO. The Macao government has pledged that to all government development plans and private development need to follow the UNESCO guidelines and local laws and bylaws (locally known as administrative regulations) to protect the “Historic Centre of Macao” and its surrounding environment. The Macao government has submitted a number of documents on the issue to UNESCO, and made promises to the global community regarding the protection of world heritage sites in Macao.

Macao has liberalized the gaming industry in an effort to develop the tourism and gaming industry into Macao’s the main economic activity since 2002. The Macao government has started to depend on the gaming industry’s development as its main economic policy. However, after to be accepted as a world heritage site by UNESCO, the government has hesitated to establish either a master city plan or any heritage-protecting plan to direct, manage, and control its urban development as well as to maintain and improve the environment of the heritage sites. So, it has made it easy for private developers to build more and more high-rise buildings. The Macao government gave in to the demands of the developer by avoiding the “Rule of the Outer Harbour Reclamation Plan” and “Nam Van Bay Renovation and detailed rule.” Therefore, many huge high-rise buildings can be built in those areas. A large number of high-rise buildings have been built or are being planned in areas affecting Macao’s world heritage sites. All this has violated the former promise of the Macao government.

3. Cultural Landscape under serious threat – The case of the Guia Lighthouse

We wish to bring one of the most controversial cases to the attention of the committee, so that the threat to the Historic Centre of Macao, a world heritage, is unveiled. The Guia Lighthouse, located on top of the Guia Hill (91 metres above sea level), is the first lighthouse along the Chinese coast. The latitude and longitude of the site is used to represent Macao’s position on the world map. It is a 15-metre high cylindrical structure, equipped with a huge spot light. The lighthouse has been serving Macao since its inauguration in 1865, and it is still functioning nowadays.

It is a crucial element of the Macao Historic Centre, built as a landmark for navigation. It has witnessed the Portuguese development in this small oriental city, and played an important role in the cultural exchange between the East and the West.

If we look at the landmark building from geography and navigation perspectives, the Guia Lighthouse is located at the commanding point high up on the Guia Hill, with an unsplittable bond to the ocean.

It forms a spacial structure of an oceanic culture, based on livelihood, navigation and trading. Historic sediment of hundreds of years created the unique architectural, artistic, cultural and historic values of the site.

If high-rise buildings are built surrounding this landmark, especially between the coast and the site, it will cut its visual link with the ocean. It will dry up the fountain of its historic context, ruin this spacial relation, and create a tragedy for the history of cultural exchange between the East and the West. Based on this very reason, the government had been strictly controlling the height of the buildings near the Guia Hill, even before the inscription of the Historic Centre. (Annex II: Original height control plan for buildings near the Guia Hill)

Yet to our surprise, the Macao Government excluded the piece of land south and southwest of the Guia Lighthouse from the buffer zone of the site, as she prepare for the documentation for the application in 2005. The government has suddenly granted rights to developers to build high-rise buildings up to 135 metres high, on land numbered 133 to 138, south of the lighthouse. (Annex III: Map of land numbered 133 to 138, and the potential blockage on landscape by the new buildings) (Annex IV: Comparison of buildings built according to the original height limit and the new height limit) (Annex V: Visualisation of the sites with new buildings mentioned on the Government Gazettes of August 2006)

Majority of residents and associations of Macao questioned the change of height limit, and opposed the government’s action to ruin cultural landscape and set a bad example. (Please visit the League of Guia Lighthouse Protectors for some reactions from the residents: http://guialighthouse.blogspot.com/, and refer to the Annex VI: news clippings about residents’ efforts in the protection for the Guia Lighthouse).

With the pressure from the residents, the government finally announced that the height of the new building would not exceed 90 metres on 18 July 2007. She also emphasized that those lands did not belong to the protection zone of world heritage, and they did not act as buffer zone. However, we believe that a world heritage building shall not a standalone object out of its environment and context. It exists and interacts with its environment and contexts, and together they form a complete complex. Alteration of world heritage landscape, because of urban development, shall undertake serious, well-organised, and scientific planning procedures. Obviously, mushrooming of high-rise buildings there will damage the unity and harmony of the building and its context, thus post a threat to the world heritage in Macao.

It is understood that urban development generates new buildings. Yet world history has long proven, again and again, that high-rise buildings without order, control and holistic urban plan will destroy the living environment. Nevertheless we should not forget that such damage is destructive and irreversible for the value of world heritage. It will benefit only a few developers, but harm the entire residents and leave a demerit on the history of mankind. Any responsible government shall be responsible for history, but not acting according to her uncontrolled free will. As residents who have grown up and lived in Macao, we are frustrated to be blocked from any detail information about plans for those lands by the government and the developers. The plan has turned into a money game by the developers, which is unacceptable in a civilised world.


4. Request for attention from the World Heritage Committee to the fact that world heritage in Macao is under serious threats

As we are writing the letter, the construction of a high-rise building below the Guia Hill is accelerating. Ultimately, it will be an 88-metre building. (Annex VII: Update photo of the construction). There must be a complete visual destruction to the landscape of this world heritage.

According to point 4 of article 11 of Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the Committee shall establish, keep up to date and publish, whenever circumstances shall so require, under the title of "list of World Heritage in Danger", a list of the property appearing in the World Heritage List for the conservation of which major operations are necessary and for which assistance has been requested under this Convention. This list shall contain an estimate of the cost of such operations. The list may include only such property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage as is threatened by serious and specific dangers, such as the threat of disappearance caused by accelerated deterioration, large-scale public or private projects or rapid urban or tourist development projects; destruction caused by changes in the use or ownership of the land & etc.; The Committee may at any time, in case of urgent need, make a new entry in the List of World Heritage in Danger and publicise such entry immediately.

Let us take Germany as an example. The Cologne Cathedral and Dresden Elbe Valley have been added to the “List of World Heritage in Danger” in different years, because of the development of their surroundings. The threat to Cologne Cathedral came from a plan for high-rise building 1 km away from the church. The threat to the Dresden Elbe Valley came from a plan for bridge 3 km southeast of the Valley. For the above reasons, the World Heritage Committee listed the two sites on the “List of World Heritage in Danger”.

We request the Committee to pay attention to the case of Macao, as the building under construction at the moment near Guia Hill is ONLY 200 metres from the Guia Lighthouse. The height of the building is almost as high as the hill itself.
(Annex VIII: Visualisation of the buildings built according to data announced by the Government Gazettes in July 2007)

5. Conclusion

Finally, we sincerely, on behalf of Macao citizens who share the common will, would like to request the World Heritage Committee to enforce your right to make a serious in-depth evaluation on the current situation of this case Macao. We hope your could find out the truth, make the right judgement, and act promptly and professionally. We believe that you can avoid human destruction on world heritage to appear again.

We urge the Committee to look into the matter as soon as possible, as damage is being made, time is ticking against us, and similar damage is rapidly multiplying! If we do not stop them now, the Historic Centre of Macao will be ruined in front of us, and this treasure of mankind will submerge under high-rises building. (Annex IX: Other cases of plans that post probable threats to world heritage)

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